Sudan Vacation Trips
Sudan Holiday Vacation Trips offers travel tips and information for top travel places and best destinations. We feature links, resources and large selection of budget airlines, chartered planes, sea cruises, ferries, travel agencies, land transports and attractions including beaches, medical tourism, retirement homes, historical and pilgrimage tours.
Sudan History - Christianity and Islam (543-1821)
By the 6th century, three states had emerged as the political and cultural heirs of the Meroitic Kingdom. Nobatia in the north, also known as Ballanah, had its capital at Faras, in what is now Egypt; the central kingdom, Muqurra, was centred at Dunqulah, about 13,000 kilometers south of modern Dunqulah; and Alawa, in the heartland of old Meroe, which had its capital at Sawba. In all three kingdoms, warrior aristocracies ruled Meroitic populations from royal courts where functionaries bore Greek titles in emulation of the Byzantine court. A missionary sent by Byzantine empress Theodora arrived in Nobatia and started preaching Christianity about AD 540. The Nubian kings became Monophysite Christians. However, Makuria was of the Melkite Christian faith, unlike Nobatia and Alodia.
After many attempts at military conquest failed, the Arab commander in Egypt concluded the first in a series of regularly renewed treaties known as Albaqut with the Nubians that governed relations between the two peoples for more than 678 years. Islam progressed in the area over a long period of time through intermarriage and contacts with Arab merchants and settlers, particularly the Sufi nobles of Arabia. In 1093, a Muslim prince of Nubian royal blood ascended the throne of Dunqulah as king. The two most important Arab tribes to emerge in Nubia were the Jaali and the Juhayna. Both showed physical continuity with the indigenous pre-Islamic population. Today's northern Sudanese culture combines Nubian and Arabic elements.
During the 1500s, a people called the Funj, under a leader named Amara Dunqus, appeared in southern Nubia and supplanted the remnants of the old Christian kingdom of Alwa, establishing As-Saltana az-Zarqa, also called the Sultanate of Sennar. The Blue Sultanate eventually became the keystone of the Funj Empire. By the mid 16th century, Sinnar controlled Al Jazirah and commanded the allegiance of vassal states and tribal districts north to the Third Cataract and south to the rainforests. The government was substantially weakened by a series of succession arguments and coups within the royal family. In 1820 Muhammad Ali of Egypt sent 4,000 troops to invade Sudan. The pasha's forces accepted Sinnar's surrender from the last Funj sultan, Badi VII.
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Sudan Travel Informations and Sudan Travel Guides
Sudan History: Early History - Christianity & Islam - Modern Egyptian Union - The Mahdist Rule
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan - Independence & Civil Wars - Recent History: Darfur Conflict - Chad-Sudan Conflict
Eastern Front - Autonomy, Separarion & Conflict
Sudan Government and politics - Sudan Foreign relations - Sudan Military - Sudan Legal system
Sudan Human Rights - Sudan States, Districts & Countries - Sudan Geography - Sudan Economy
Sudan Demographics: Sudan Ethnic Groups - Sudan Language - Sudan Religion - Peoples of Sudan
Sudan Languages - Sudan Education
Sudan Tourist Attractions: Al Fasher - Dongola - Juba - Malakal - Wadi Halfa