Sudan Vacation Trips
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Sudan History - Early History (3000 BC-543 AD)
Archaeological evidence has confirmed that the area in the north of Sudan, Nubia, was inhabited at least 60,000 years ago. A settled culture had appeared in the area around 8,000 BC, living in fortified villages, where they subsisted on hunting and fishing, as well as grain gathering and cattle herding while also being shepherds.
The area was known to the Egyptians as the Kush and had strong cultural and religious ties to Egypt. In the 8th century BC, however, Kush came under the rule of an aggressive line of monarchs, ruling from the capital city, Napata, who gradually extended their influence into Egypt. About 750 BC, a Kushite king called Kashta conquered Upper Egypt and became ruler of Thebes until approximately 740 BC. His successor, Piankhy, subdued the delta, reunited Egypt under the Twenty-fifth Dynasty, and founded a line of kings who ruled Kush and Thebes for about a hundred years. The dynasty's intervention in the area of modern Syria caused a confrontation between Egypt and Assyria. When the Assyrians in retaliation invaded Egypt, Taharqa, the last Kushite pharaoh, withdrew and returned the dynasty to Napata, where it continued to rule Kush and extended its dominions to the south and east.
The pharaonic tradition persisted among Meroe's rulers, who raised stelae to record the achievements of their reigns and erected pyramids to contain their tombs. These objects and the ruins at palaces, temples and baths at Meroe attest to a centralised political system that employed artisans' skills and commanded the labour of a large workforce. A well-managed irrigation system allowed the area to support a higher population density than was possible during later periods. By the 1st century BC, the use of hieroglyphs gave way to a Meroitic script that adapted the Egyptian writing system to an indigenous, Nubian-related language spoken later by the region's people.
In the 6th century AD, the people known as the Nobatae occupied the Nile's west bank in northern Kush. Eventually they intermarried and established themselves among the Meroitic people as a military aristocracy. Until nearly the 5th century, Rome subsidised the Nobatae and used Meroe as a buffer between Egypt and the Blemmyes. About AD 350, an Axumite army from Abyssinia captured and destroyed Meroe city, ending the kingdom's independent existence.
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Sudan Travel Informations and Sudan Travel Guides
Sudan History: Early History - Christianity & Islam - Modern Egyptian Union - The Mahdist Rule
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan - Independence & Civil Wars - Recent History: Darfur Conflict - Chad-Sudan Conflict
Eastern Front - Autonomy, Separarion & Conflict
Sudan Government and politics - Sudan Foreign relations - Sudan Military - Sudan Legal system
Sudan Human Rights - Sudan States, Districts & Countries - Sudan Geography - Sudan Economy
Sudan Demographics: Sudan Ethnic Groups - Sudan Language - Sudan Religion - Peoples of Sudan
Sudan Languages - Sudan Education
Sudan Tourist Attractions: Al Fasher - Dongola - Juba - Malakal - Wadi Halfa