Sudan Travel Guide

Sudan Hotels

Sudan Tourist Attractions:
Al Fasher
Dongola
Juba
Malakal
Wadi Halfa

Sudan Travel Informations and Sudan Travel Guides
Sudan Geography
Sudan Economy
Sudan Government and Politics
Sudan Foreign Relations
Sudan Military
Sudan Legal System
Sudan Human Rights
Sudan States, Districts & Countries
Sudan Demographics
Sudan Ethnic Groups
Sudan Language
Sudan Religion
Peoples of Sudan
Sudan Languages
Sudan Education

Sudan History:
Early History
Christianity & Islam
Modern Egyptian Union
The Mahdist Rule
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
Independence & Civil Wars

Recent History
:
Darfur Conflict
Chad-Sudan Conflict
Eastern Front
Autonomy, Separarion & Conflict


Sudan Vacation Trips

Sudan Holiday Vacation Trips offers travel tips and information for top travel places and best destinations. We feature links, resources and large selection of budget airlines, chartered planes, sea cruises, ferries, travel agencies, land transports and attractions including beaches, medical tourism, retirement homes, historical and pilgrimage tours.


Sudan History - Recent History (1989-Present)

Darfur Conflict

Just as the long north-south civil war was reaching a resolution, some clashes occurred in the western region of Darfur in the early 1970s between the pastoral tribes. The rebels accused the central government of neglecting the Darfur region economically, although there is uncertainty regarding the objectives of the rebels and whether they merely seek an improved position for Darfur within Sudan or outright secession. Both the government and the rebels have been accused of atrocities in this war, although most of the blame has fallen on Arab militias known as the Janjaweed, which are armed men appointed by the Al Saddiq Al Mahdi administration to stop the longstanding chaotic disputes between Darfur tribes. According to declarations by the United States Government, these militias have been engaging in genocide; the fighting has displaced hundreds of thousands of people, many of them seeking refuge in neighbouring Chad. The government claimed victory over the rebels after capturing a town on the border with Chad in early 1994. However, the fighting resumed in 2003.

On 9 September 2004, the United States Secretary of State Colin Powell termed the Darfur conflict a genocide, claiming it as the worst humanitarian crisis of the 21st century. There have been reports that the Janjawid has been launching raids, bombings, and attacks on villages, killing civilians based on ethnicity, raping women, stealing land, goods, and herds of livestock. So far, over 2.5 million civilians have been displaced and the death toll is variously estimated from 200,000 to 400,000 killed. These figures have remained stagnant since initial UN reports of the conflict hinted at genocide in 2003/2004. Genocide has been considered a criminal offense under international humanitarial law since the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.

On 5 May 2006, the Sudanese government and Darfur's largest rebel group, the SLM, signed the Darfur Peace Agreement, which aimed at ending the three-year-long conflict. The agreement specified the disarmament of the Janjawid and the disbandment of the rebel forces, and aimed at establishing a temporal government in which the rebels could take part. The agreement, which was brokered by the African Union, however, was not signed by all of the rebel groups. Only one rebel group, the SLA, led by Minni Arko Minnawi, signed the DPA.

Since the agreement was signed, however, there have been reports of widespread violence throughout the region. A new rebel group has emerged called the National Redemption Front, which is made up of the four main rebel groups that refused to sign the May peace agreement. Recently, both the Sudanese government and government-sponsored Muslim militias have launched large offensives against the rebel groups, resulting in more deaths and more displacements. Clashes among the rebel groups have also contributed to the violence. Recent fighting along the Chad border has left hundreds of soldiers and rebel forces dead and nearly a quarter of a million refugees cut off from aid. In addition, villages have been bombed and more civilians have been killed. UNICEF recently reported that around 80 infants die each day in Darfur as a result of malnutrition.

The people in Darfur are predominantly Black Africans of Muslim belief. While the Janjawid militia is made up of Arabized Black African; the majority of Arab groups in Darfur remain uninvolved in the conflict. Darfurians—Arab and non-Arab alike—profoundly distrust a government in Khartoum that has brought them nothing but trouble.

The International Criminal Court has indicted State Minister for Humanitarian Affairs Ahmed Haroun and alleged Muslim Janjawid militia leader Ali Mohammed Ali, also known as Ali Kosheib, in relation to the atrocities in the region. Ahmed Haroun belongs to the Bargou tribe, one of the non-Arab tribes of Darfur, and is alleged to have incited attacks on specific non-Arab ethnic groups. Ali Kosheib is a former soldier and a leader of the popular defense forces, and is alleged to be one of the key leaders responsible for attacks on villages in west Darfur.

The International Criminal Court's chief prosecutor on Darfur, Luis Moreno-Ocampo, announced on 14 July 2008, ten criminal charges against President Bashir, accusing him of sponsoring war crimes and crimes against humanity. The ICC's prosecutors have claimed that al-Bashir "masterminded and implemented a plan to destroy in substantial part" three tribal groups in Darfur because of their ethnicity. The ICC's prosecutor for Darfur, Luis Moreno-Ocampo, is expected within months to ask a panel of ICC judges to issue an arrest warrant for Bashir.

The Arab League, African Union, and even France support Sudan’s efforts to suspend the ICC investigation. They are willing to consider Article 16 of the Rome Statute, which states ICC investigations can be suspended for one year if the investigation endangers the peace process.


Holiday Vacation Trips Sudan also showcase a unique blend of travel and leisure photos and stories, updates, events and announcements about roads, shopping malls, hotels, bed and breakfast, restaurants, groceries and more. Not just a travel guide but one-of-a-kind discovery of people and places.

 


Sudan Travel Informations and Sudan Travel Guides
Sudan History: Early History - Christianity & Islam - Modern Egyptian Union - The Mahdist Rule
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan - Independence & Civil Wars - Recent History: Darfur Conflict - Chad-Sudan Conflict
Eastern Front - Autonomy, Separarion & Conflict

Sudan Government and politics - Sudan Foreign relations - Sudan Military - Sudan Legal system
Sudan Human Rights - Sudan States, Districts & Countries - Sudan Geography - Sudan Economy
Sudan Demographics: Sudan Ethnic Groups - Sudan Language - Sudan Religion - Peoples of Sudan
Sudan Languages - Sudan Education

Sudan Tourism
Sudan Tourist Attractions: Al Fasher - Dongola - Juba - Malakal - Wadi Halfa

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